HISTORY OF HAIRCOLOR

HAIRCOLOR BLEACHING & DYING HAIRCOLOR


In 1909, the French chemist Eugene Schuller invented the first safe commercial HAIRCOLOR. Schuller used a chemical called paraphenylenediamine. Today, HAIRCOLOR is extremely popular -- over 75% of all U.S. women color their hair, and a growing number of men.

HAIRCOLOR AT WORK

HAIRCOLOR works due chemical reactions between the molecules in hair, pigments, as well as peroxide and ammonia, if they're present.

THE HISTORY (& chemical composition) OF HAIR


KERATIN is the main ingredient in hair -- KERATIN is the same protein found in our skin and fingernails. The natural COLOR OF HAIR depends on the ratio and quantities of two other proteins, eumelanin and phaeomelanin. Eumelanin is responsible for brown to black hair shades; phaeomelanin is responsible for GOLDEN BLONDE, GINGER, and RED HAIRCOLORS. The absence of either type of melanin produces WHITE or GRAY HAIR.

HISTORY OF COLOROLANT PIGMENTS

NATURAL HAIRCOLOR & NATURAL HAIRCOLORANTS


For thousands of years, people have been haircoloring using PLANTS and MINERALS. Some of these natural agents contain pigments (examples: henna, black walnut shells), while others have natural bleaching agents, or cause reactions that change HAIRCOLOR (example: vinegar). Natural pigments generally produce haircolor changes by coating the hair shaft with color. Some natural colorants may last for several shampoos, but that doesn't mean they are necessarily safer, or gentler than modern formulations. It's difficult to get consistent, reliable results using natural colorants, and some individuals are allergic to the ingredients.

PERMANENT & SEMI-PERMANENT

TEMPORARY HAIRCOLOR


TEMPORARY HAIRCOLOR or SEMI-PERMANENT HAIRCOLOR may deposit acidic dyes onto the outside of the hair shaft or may consist of small pigment molecules that have the ability to slip inside the hair shaft; they may use a small amount of peroxide or none whatsoever austinor. Shampooing will eventually dislodge TEMPORARY HAIRCOLOR. These products don't contain ammonia; this means that the hair shaft isn't opened up during processing, and the hair's natural color is retained once you wash the product out.

HAIRCOLOR BLEACHING

LIGHTENING HAIRCOLOR EXPLAINED


BLEACH is used to lighten hair. Bleach reacts with melanin present in hair, pulling out haircolor in an irreversible chemical reaction. The bleach oxidizes the melanin molecule. While melanin is still present in the treated hair, the oxidized molecule is rendered colorless. However, bleached hair tends to have a pale yellow tint. The yellow color is the natural color of KERATIN, a structural protein in hair. Also, bleach reacts more easily with the dark eumelanin pigment than with the phaeomelanin, so hints of gold or red residual haircolor may remain after lightening. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE is one of the most common hair lightening agents. The peroxide is used in an alkaline solution, which opens the hair shaft to allow the peroxide to react with the melanin.

HISTORY OF HAIRCOLOR

PERMANENT HAIRCOLOR


A HAIR CUTICLE is the OUTER LAYER OF THE HAIR SHAFT. The HAIR CUTICLE must be opened before permanent color can be deposited into hair. Once the cuticle is open, dye reacts with the inner portion of the hair (the HAIR CORTEX) to deposit or remove the color. Most permanent haircolors use a two-step process (usually occurring simultaneously) which first removes the original haircolor and then deposits a new color.
This is essentially the same process as lightening, except that a colorant is then bonded within the hair shaft. Ammonia is the alkaline chemical that opens the cuticle and allows the haircolor to penetrate the HAIR CORTEX. It also acts as a catalyst when the permanent haircolor comes together with the peroxide. Peroxide is used as either developer or oxidizing agent. The DEVELOPED removes pre-existing color. PEROXIDE breaks chemical bonds in hair, releasing SULFUR. (This release of SULFUR accounts for the characteristic odor of HAIRCOLOR.) As the melanin is decolorized, a new permanent color is bonded to the hair cortex. Various types of ALCOHOLS and CONDITIONERS may also be present in haircolor. The conditioners CLOSE THE HAIR CUTICLE after coloring to seal in and protect the new color.




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HISTORY OF HAIRCOLOR